Smeaton’s Tower

Smeaton’s Tower, situated these days on the much less turbulent Plymouth Hoe

Lighthouses by their very nature can be tricky things to get to. So when one which was originally out at sea – perched on a dangerous windswept reef for good measure – moves to the mainland, why not? The lighthouse in question is called Smeaton’s Tower these days and has been standing in a a park in Plymouth for well over a century at this stage. Originally it was known as the (third) Eddystone Lighthouse and was built on rocks which bear the same name. The name Eddystone Rocks is a little misleading because they’re not just a few random rocks 19km off the English coast but a large, dangerous reef. Needless to say, many a seagoing craft met a watery end on the reef and there is still a lighthouse out there. Even though this lighthouse is no longer serving the purpose for which it was built, it is still more than just an oversized garden ornament in a public park.

The ill-fated 1st & 2nd Eddystone lighthouses

The first lighthouse to be built on the reef was a tower designed by a man named Henry Winstanley. It was completed in 1698 but lasted just 5 years. It was swept away during the great Storm of 1703, killing 6 people including Winstanley himself who had been making modifications to the tower at the time. The second one designed by John Rudyard was completed in 1709 and remained in situ until 1755 when it was destroyed by fire. Its unfortunate 94 year old lighthouse keeper died several days later after swallowing molten lead which was falling from the burning lantern room at the top of the tower. Somewhat bizarrely, the piece of lead which killed him survives to this day.

When it came to building a third lighthouse, engineer John Smeaton was entrusted with the task.  He based the shape of it on that of an oak tree, a structure from nature which had proved to be rather good at withstanding the elements. He went back to Roman times for the type of mortar he used – hydraulic lime is what was used in the Pantheon in Rome and we know how long that has lasted. Crucially, hydraulic lime sets underwater which made it ideal for the job in hand. The lighthouse itself was built from dovetailed blocks of granite, precision cut and interlocking once they were assembled. The blocks were worked on in Plymouth, not very far from where the tower now stands. They were shipped out to sea and the lighthouse built on the reef. After over 3 years of work, the lighthouse finally came into operation in 1759.

The original stump of Smeaton’s Tower can still be seen at sea, close to the lighthouse which replaced it in 1879

The lighthouse operated successfully out at sea until the rocks on which it was built began to succumb to erosion. It was noted in 1877 that any time large waves hit, the lighthouse would shake. A replacement lighthouse was commissioned and built close by and it survives to this day. When that was completed in 1879, Smeaton’s lighthouse fell into darkness.

Thankfully the original plan to blow up the lighthouse didn’t come to fruition. It was dismantled and brought back to Plymouth, where it was reassembled on Plymouth Hoe. In 1884 the rebuilt tower was renamed as Smeaton’s Tower in honour its creator. It has remained open to the public since then. The remnants of the lighthouse’s foundations can still be seen at sea, close to the tower which replaced it. Interestingly, the design of the replacement lighthouse wasn’t a million miles away from Smeaton’s tower. While it was still in operation, a Scottish engineer called Robert Stevenson visited it. He tweaked Smeaton’s ideas when designing the Bell Rock lighthouse off the Scottish coast. When the time came to build the 4th Eddystone lighthouse, engineer James Douglass used Stevenson’s specifications. If the Stevenson name sounds familiar, it’s probably because his grandson Robert Louis Stevenson wrote Treasure Island. The Stevensons were something of a lighthouse building dynasty and there have been books and documentaries made about them.

What’s inside?

The bottom part of the tower isn’t original, of course and has some spiral steps up to the first floor. After that though, it’s all ladders. Unlike the two other lighthouses I’ve been in which had spiral staircases along the walls, this one has floors with the same shape as Polo Mints. The different rooms in the tower are furnished with a mixture of genuine and replica furniture. There is a table which was in the actual lighthouse. Perhaps the most startling piece of furniture in the place was the bed. Living on an off-shore lighthouse was not the job for you if you were a tall person who didn’t like sleeping in cupboards.

One of the notices on the wall reminds visitors that this is an 18th century building that was designed for 3 people. Looking around the building, it’s hard not to wonder how tough life must have been for the 3 people living and working there at any time. Cramped is one word to describe the conditions. On the other hand, these guys were probably the nimblest ladder climbers around.

At the top of the lighthouse is the lantern room, complete with a replica of the candle holder which would’ve been there at the start. These days it offers a nice view over Plymouth and out to sea. On a good day it is possible to see out as far as the Eddystone rocks and where the story began. Plymouth itself was bombed extensively during World War II, destroying a lot of the city. It’s a miracle this wonderful little lighthouse didn’t bite the dust too.

Date of visit: 5th October 2013

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Loop Head Lighthouse

Loop Head peninsula is situated on Ireland’s south-western coast, on the north side of the Shannon Estuary. The peninsula itself is a beautiful place to visit but as anyone who knows me will confirm, it was the lighthouse that drew me here. In recent years, the Commissioner for Irish lights (the body who run the lighthouses in Ireland) have been marketing a small number of lighthouses around the country as tourist destinations. Some as places for the public to visit, some as self-catering accommodation for tourists. Loop Head lighthouse straddles both camps, though I visited as a mere day-tripper looking for an opportunity to climb a tower 😀 The lighthouse keeper’s house on the site isn’t open to the public but photographs of the interior can be seen here 

Like many lighthouses around Ireland, the building on site now isn’t the only one which has stood there over time. Originally it was a 17th century stone cottage, replaced in 1802 by a regular lighthouse. Because of ongoing problems with the light signals coming from this lighthouse, it was decided to replace it with the present tower. Work began on it in 1844 and finished a decade later. The original lighthouse was eventually dismantled and the stone recycled. Or upcycled as they call it these days.

The view from the top. That’s the river Shannon in the background, believe it or not.

What’s on site?

The lighthouse itself is worth a visit, if only to admire the handiwork of the men who built the tower. The interlocking stairs which run along the walls between the floors are stunning in themselves. It is still a working lighthouse to this day so I got a fleeting glimpse of the lantern in operation as we moved between floors. We were “whooshed” up and down the lighthouse rather quickly so I didn’t have a chance to take many photos. It was a shame it was a dull, overcast day because it reduced visibility a bit. Still, it wasn’t a wasted journey by any means.

The visitor’s centre is basic enough, with the usual multimedia displays, interactive screens, memorabilia etc. I was surprised to see there wasn’t some sort of coffee shop on site. The two vending machines which sell drinks and snacks were broken. Hmm…this is starting to turn into a TripAdvisor review 😀 I hope that over time they will develop the visitor’s centre further and add more facilities. Unlike the similar (better) visitor’s centre at Hook Head, they’re not over-burdened with existing buildings. Indeed, the toilets are in a portacabin outside. Not that I’m going to fault them for that – I’ve been in far far worse water closets 😀

Ruins of World War II lookout station

While we were at the top of the lighthouse, the tour guide pointed out an area a little further down the headland with a connection to World War II. Ireland remained neutral during the war but over 80 navigation signs with the word EIRE were set into the ground along the coast. These were for American pilots to identify where they were flying. There was one of these signs at Loop Head, along with a hut which now lies in ruins. It is a shame that this hut has been left there as a pile of rubble. It is part of our history and would be an interesting addition to the area.

The headland is a lovely place to walk around, even on an overcast day. Someone said to me that they’d spotted dolphins further back up along the headland. By the time I got there though, there wasn’t a flipper to be seen. Oh well….


Hook Head

The Hook Peninsula is located in the south-east of Ireland, at the mouth of Waterford Harbour. There are some interesting places dotted along the peninsula, including Tintern Abbey (a sister abbey to the one in Wales), a ruined Templar’s Church, a very haunted house and a beach where they used to make millstones from the rock. The most well known landmark on the peninsula has been there longer than the rest of them though. The lighthouse at Hook Head, at the southern tip of the peninsula.

Before the tower was built, local monks used to light fires to warn passing ships
Ruins of Hook Church. Remnants of the original monastery can be found in the centre wall of the church

The first lighthouse related activity dates right back to the 5th century when a Welsh-born saint by the name of Dubhán began to light a navigation beacon on the headland. He had established a monastery 1.5km away. The monks in the monastery continued to light the beacon for another 700 years. The peninsula is named after St. Dubhán. His name means Hook or Fishing Hook in Irish.

Around 1245, the lighthouse which stands here now was built by a powerful Norman nobleman called William Marshall. The reason for this was probably so his ships could travel from Waterford to nearby New Ross (established by Marshall) without being wrecked. Perhaps because Marshall had built numerous castles, including those at Kilkenny, Carlow and Ferns, it was no surprise that the Tower of Hook also was built in this style.

The ceiling on the ground floor is black from the coal which was stored here.
The rib vaulted ceiling on the ground floor is black from the coal which was stored here for hundreds of years. Also in the photo is a replica lighthouse lamp

There are rib vaulted ceilings inside and three stone floored chambers, one on top of each other. A highly worthwhile exercise when you’re in a building that has a big fire burning on top of it. Each chamber would not look out of place in castles from that era.  For hundreds of years, the light on the top of the tower was fuelled by coal imported from Wales. The monks from the local monastery tended to it until 1641. With the beacon no longer in operation, shipwrecks started again. So in 1667, the lighthouse was brought back into service again.

The original tower was roughly 18m high and 8.5m in diameter but it was added to over the centuries. It now stands 46m tall. As you might expect, it also changed fuel types over the centuries. Coal, oil, gas, paraffin and finally electricity. Interestingly, there are very few trees on the Hook Peninsula. One theory being that the monks chopped them all down to keep the fire going.

The lighthouse finally was automated in 1996 and opened to the public a few years later. The former houses belonging to the lighthouse keepers are now a visitor’s centre
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